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Database and Objects in Salesforce

Database and Objects in Salesforce

What You’ll Learn

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Data modeling in Salesforce is fundamental to designing and structuring the data within the platform. These data models are introduced to support an organization’s business processes and objectives effectively.

It involves the creation of a blueprint that defines how data will be organized, related, and stored in Salesforce objects, allowing for the efficient management, retrieval, and reporting of critical information. 

Further, databases and objects in Salesforce form the backbone of data management and organization. Suppose you’re a student or an aspiring Salesforce professional. In that case, understanding these fundamental concepts is crucial for effectively harnessing the power of Salesforce.

In this blog, we’ll dive into the Salesforce databases and objects world, breaking down complex ideas into simple and easy-to-grasp concepts.

What is Database?

A database is a central repository for data, like a warehouse of all information where you can systematically store data. In a database, the data is organized in rows and columns. So it can be accessed, managed, retrieved, and updated effortlessly. 

Databases are divided into two categories:

  1. Relational Databases
  2. Non-relational Databases or No SQL Databases

An organization may use them individually or in a combo of three depending on the nature of the data and its required functionality. Databases do more than simply assist in structuring and organizing data through tables.

They are also used for storing the massive columns of data for the various users. Some examples of databases are MySQL, SQL Server, MongoDB, Oracle Database, PostgreSQL, Informix, Sybase, and others.

For managing these databases, a Database Management System (DBMS) is used. The most commonly used language for interaction and manipulation of databases is Structured Query Language (SQL). 

Databases should do the following:

  • Use tables to structure and organize information
  • Load more data than RAM allows 
  • Accommodate multiple users/admins

It is expected that databases are able to do the above, but not all databases are made equal. In some cases, databases are immobile, flat, and hyper-focused on a singular activity. 

Many of us might be aware of the pictorial representation of databases. If not then let us show you the format as an instance for you:

Table: Student


First Name

Last Name


Year of Birth




[email protected]





[email protected]





[email protected]





[email protected]





[email protected]





[email protected]


Note: Some important rules of relational database are as follows:

  • Data related to each object/entity is stored in a separate table.
  • Each table comprises a number of columns of a particular data type, such as number, text, or date.
  • Information is stored in the rows of tables.
  • Tables can be related to other tables using the concept of primary key and foreign key.
salesforce marketing cloud

What is the Salesforce Database?

In Salesforce, think of a database as an organized place where we gather and arrange data neatly. Salesforce uses its unique database system called Oracle to handle customer data in a really efficient way. This Oracle database is like an ample storage space where all the info about Salesforce products, like Sales Cloud, Service Cloud, and Marketing Cloud, is kept. 

Data is systematically organized into rows and tables inside the Salesforce database. Each row represents a single record, and each column represents a different piece of information about the record. So, this database does a great job of keeping important customer info like contact details, account info, and transaction history all in one place.

Architecture of Salesforce Database

The Salesforce database design architecture is intended to provide an adaptable and flexible interface for workers, customers, and partners. It is made up of multiple interconnected layers in sequence. The layers are joined to provide a strong and multi-tenant database. 

As a cloud-based corporation, all the components are housed in a multi-tenant database. It shares all the database resources with all the tenants and stores the data securely. The data services, APIs, and AI services all have to rely on the metadata. It is the fundamental layer of all the services. 

Some important features of the architecture are as follows: 

  • The multi-tenancy assures that essential functions remain constant regardless of the growth inside the organization, access to data storage, and processing power. 
  • Metadata in the architecture includes all custom setups, scripts, and functions. This component allows the user to browse the site more quickly. 
  • The APIs allow various software in the architecture to communicate with one another for quick information exchange. Their usage is in finding the metadata being sought. 

Keeping aside the functional characteristics, the physical organization of the Salesforce Database consists of several components. Salesforce uses distinct terminology for the three fundamental components of the database. Objects, Fields, and Records. 

Let’s discuss them in detail.

What are Objects in Salesforce?

In Salesforce, data is organized into “objects.” Think of objects as the building blocks that structure your data. An object is a table that contains a collection of fields and records of data. Various sorts of relationships connect objects. The Salesforce platform supports the following kinds of objects:

1. Salesforce Standard Objects

These are the objects that are built inside the Salesforce software for you. These consist of information such as Contacts, Leads, Accounts, and so on. 

2. Salesforce Custom Objects

These are the objects that you may construct based on your needs in terms of certain business processes and features. They extend the functionality of the standard object. 

3. Salesforce External Objects

These objects can be developed to map the data held outside your organization. The mix of these categories allows organizations to move between different sorts of data and make the platform flexible for their own needs. 

Note: Each object in the Salesforce platform has several built-in features like user interface, sharing model, security, and many more. 

Now that you know about databases in Salesforce, its architecture, and its objects, let’s take a look at how you can interact with data in the database.

Database Query in Salesforce

You should see the data stored inside databases in its raw form and query regarding specific criteria. You can use queries on Salesforce databases to uncover valuable insights from data. 

For these queries, you have three choices:

  • DML or Data Manipulation Language
  • Salesforce Object Query Language (SOQL)
  • Salesforce Object Search Language (SOSL)

One simple example of a query created in SOQL language structure is as follows:

SELECT one or more fields, [SubQuery] 
FROM an object 
WHERE filter statements 
HAVING Count(Email) > 2 
ORDER BY CreatedDate ASC 

Database Methods in Salesforce

These are the Database Class methods that provide another way of performing operations otherwise done by DML statements, such as insert, update, etc. The main reason for using Database methods rather than DML statements is due to their flexibility. 

Consider these to get more insights:

  • Database methods allow for partial updates. For example, if you want to insert 10 records in an object and there is a required field on the object, it is not provided for all 10 records. It can be done in the Database method by specifying the parameter as true or false.
  • You can get the list of successful and failed records in the Database methods. For example, Public static Database.SaveResult insert (sObjectrecordtoInsert, Boolean allOrNone). In this, the allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows for partial success. 

An example of an insert operation performed through the Database method is provided in the following:

//Insert operation using Database Method
APEX_Customer__c objCust = new APEX_Customer__c();
objCust.Name = 'Test';
insert objCust;
//Add 2 Invoices
//Create a list which will store invoices
List<APEX_Invoice__c> InvoiceListToInsert = new List<APEX_Invoice__c>();
//First Invoice
APEX_Invoice__c objCustInvoice1 = new APEX_Invoice__c();
objCustInvoice1.APEX_Status__c = 'Pending';
objCustInvoice1.APEX_Amount_Paid__c = 5000;
objCustInvoice1.APEX_Customer__c = objCust.Id;
//Second Invoice
APEX_Invoice__c objCustInvoice2 = new APEX_Invoice__c();
objCustInvoice2.APEX_Status__c = 'Paid';
objCustInvoice2.APEX_Amount_Paid__c = 9000;
//Database Insert method. We are passing two parameters.
//First: List of the Invoice records we need to insert
//Second: AllorNone
Database.SaveResult[] resultlist = Database.insert(InvoiceListToInsert, false);
//Check which records got successfully inserted and which got failed
for(Database.SaveResult SR : resultlist)
    //Successful records
        System.debug('Successfully inserted these records: '+SR.getID());
    //Failed records
        for(Database.Error SRError : SR.getErrors())
            System.debug('Following error has occured');            
            //Get error status code and message
            System.debug(SRError.getStatusCode()+' : '+SRError.getMessage());           
            //Know which fields are affected
            System.debug('Fields of Invoice object which are affected : '+SRError.getFields());

Database Model in Salesforce

In Salesforce, the database model is the blueprint that defines how data is structured, organized, and related within the platform. It outlines which objects exist, what fields they have, and how they’re interconnected. In the Salesforce platform, objects represent database tables, fields represent columns, and records represent rows. A proper data model ensures that Salesforce data is kept clean, accurate, and actionable. 

Some of the best practices for designing the data model that can help you make the most out of it are: 

  • Using a naming convention that is both clear and consistent. 
  • Create custom objects/fields only in case it is necessary to do so.
  • Making a data model that is scalable and simple.
  • Set appropriate permissions for the users in the data model.
  • Avoid using any special characters in object/field names.

Salesforce Database Management

Salesforce Database management involves maintaining the integrity and security of your data. Salesforce takes care of most of this for you. But as a Salesforce professional, you should understand how data is backed up, secured, and accessed.

Salesforce’s database offers a quick, secure, and sophisticated manner of connecting with crucial data points effortlessly. Specifically defined relationships link together items in Salesforce. 

Salesforce objects primarily have three types of connections. They are based on data sharing, accessing issues, and deletion. Database Class Salesforce holds the following sorts of relationships:

  • Many to many
  • Many to One
    • Master-Detail
    • Look Up
    • Hierarchical
    • Self

In a Nutshell

Salesforce databases and objects are the foundation of your CRM journey. They empower you to store, organize, and retrieve data efficiently, allowing businesses to make informed decisions and provide stellar customer experiences.

As a student or future Salesforce expert, familiarizing yourself with these concepts is a vital step in mastering the platform. So, explore Salesforce’s database architecture, and start building your data-driven success story in the world of CRM technology. In the next part of this series on data modeling, we will talk on the topic of applications and tabs in Salesforce.

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